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    “Lapping Process | Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications, Types
    1.What is lapping?

    Lapping is a finishing process, which is carried out using loose abrasives. In lapping process surface smoothing is achieved by the abrasive grains which are supported by the lap, which acts as a cutting tool shank.

    2.Advantages of lapping:

    -Extreme accuracy of dimensions

    -Correction of minor imperfections of shape

    -Refinement of surface finish

    -Producing close fit between mating surfaces

    -It does not require the use of holding devices; therefore, no workpiece distortion occurs.

    Additionally, in normal lapping, less heat is generated than in most of other finishing operations. This minimizes the possibility of metallurgical changes to the machined parts.When both sides of a flat workpiece are lapped simultaneously, an extreme accuracy in flatness and parallelism and the relief of inherent stresses can be achieved.

    2.Disadvantages or limitations of lapping:

    -It is a slow process

    -It is a expensive process

    3.Applications of lapping process

    -It is used in Ceramic machining

    -It is used in Brittle material machining

    -It is used in Glass machining

    4.Types of Lapping

    The Rubbing action in lapping can be done manually or with the help of machine. According to it, lapping can be divided into two types.

    -Hand Lapping:

    In hand lapping process, the work piece is rubbed over the lapping plate manually. In this process, first the plate is coated with the abrasive material which is in the form of paste. Now, the work piece is rubbed over plate by applying a small pressure manually.

    -Machine Lapping:

    It is used for finishing large quantity of similar parts. Lapping machine involves a rotating lapping plate and conditional rings.The condition ring provides the position for the workpiece, which rotates and rubs the workpiece on the grinding plate.Abrasive particles are provided with suitable medium like liquid or in powder form. This rubbing removes metal in form of microchips and provide super finishing.

    What is lapping?
    Lapping is a type of finishing process which is carried out with the help of loose abrasives. In this finishing process, surface smoothening is achieved by the abrasive grains which are supported by the lap, which functions as a cutting tool shank. Ceramic machining, Brittle material machining, and Glass machining are some of the applications of the lapping process.

    The principle of lapping is based on the cutting power of either a free abrasive grain in a carrier or a fixed abrasive particle within a composite lapping plate matrix. The lapping plate on which a slurry medium is applied moves under the workpiece/job surface while the workpiece/job rotates on the lapping plate. The uniform abrasive layer forming between the lapping plate and the workpiece gradually removes material from all the contacting areas simultaneously, putting very little stress into the workpiece. Ultimately when the whole workpiece has been lapped, the shape of the lapping plate is imparted on the workpiece. For this reason, flat lapping machines are capable of generating incredibly flat workpieces.

    It seems as if the abrasive grains are working in a free movement which is not entirely true. Depending on the lapping process used, the abrasives are either freely rolling or sliding between the workpiece and lapping plate. In diamond lapping, the abrasive particles become fixed within the machined medium. The material removal takes place slowly due to the movement of the lapping plate with respect to the workpiece.

    Lapping is a process that requires precision, hence it takes quite a bit of time. In order to speed up the process, the two-step operation can be used. The first step is to remove material and create flatness and the second step is to produce a specific surface roughness (Ra value). This is only necessary when our desired Ra is below 0.05µm and we need to remove a lot of material.

    With conventional lapping, abrasives such as aluminum oxide or silicon carbide are applied in a carrying medium (e.g Oil) onto a hard-worked surface (e.g. cast iron). The particles can’t be pressed into the surface and remain secured there, so they roll and displace freely in all directions. They hammer small particles out of the workpiece, imparting deep deformations. This phenomenon takes place as the free-moving abrasive particles are not able to produce a real scratch on the component surface. Instead, it hammers out small pockets.

    Typically the lapping process is used to:

    -Produce a fine surface finish

    -Produce sealing surfaces

    -Produce sharp cutting edges

    -Produce flat stress-free surfaces

    -Produce a datum face

    -Improve the wear-resistant properties of surfaces

    The Benefits of Mechanical Polishing
    Mechanical polishing involves the utilization of processes such as grinding and buffing in order to remove scratches, gouges, and other damage appearing on the surface of a material.Mechanical polishing is done to improve the surface condition of a product for decorative or functional purposes — or both.

    1.Understanding the Mechanical Polishing Process

    There are typically three main steps in the mechanical polishing process: grinding, polishing, and buffing, done in that order. For stainless steel, in particular, there are five grades of mill plate and sheet metal finishes available; these finishes are produced mechanically using the abrasive media and buffing wheels of polishing machine. There is also a generic “non-directional No. 8” grade available.

    During mechanical polishing, defects such as grinding lines, scratches, pits and surface flaws — damage that may affect a part’s appearance, as well as its functionality — are eliminated.

    Mechanical polishing is a highly specialized process, and must be completed by a skilled technician with years of experience and thorough knowledge of the craft. Special mechanical polishing procedures may also need to be carried out for product that will eventually undergo electropolishing.

    2.Common Mechanical Polishing Applications

    Mechanical polishing is used in a range of different industries, including the food and beverage, dairy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and semiconductor sectors. Various parts may require polishing, such as tubing, elbows, fittings, and custom machined and fabricated assemblies. Polishing is critical especially for the pharmaceutical, but also for the dairy, food, confection, cosmetic and brewery industries who require sanitary applications, the process is inevitably more complicated.

    The mechanical polishing process results in uniform surface conditioning that meets or exceeds ASME BPE and ASTM B912 standards.

    Mechanical polishing offers numerous benefits, providing products with an improved surface finish, reduced product adhesion, better surface cleanability, and higher aesthetic appeal.

    Advantages Of Flat Polishing Machine
    1.What is the principle of the flat polishing machine?

    The plane polishing machine is a kind of polishing machine. As long as it is used for plane polishing, it is different from round tube polishing, concave-convex polishing, etc., and is aimed at workpiece products that can be plane-polished.

    It can be divided into single-sided polishing and double-sided polishing. Plane polishing machine refers to a machine that performs ultra-precision processing of flat workpieces, removes scratches, spots, and collapses on the surface of the workpiece, and makes the surface of the workpiece bright and smooth, with a mirror effect or even a certain precise roughness value.

    The engine drives the grinding disc to rotate and generates friction with the workpiece rotating on the grinding disc. The friction generates cutting force to smooth the uneven surface of the workpiece to achieve the purpose of polishing.

    2.What are the advantages of flat polishing machines?

    -The operation is simple and the work efficiency is very high. It can perfectly solve many polishing operations in a short time, and the work is carried out in a fully automatic state, which does not require too much manual operation, saving money, time and worry.

    -The manufacturing materials of the plane polishing machine are highly wear-resistant, that is to say, the quality is very excellent, the service life is very long, there will be no various problems, and the operation time is very convenient.

    -The polishing machine it produces is very tight in operation. During the manufacturing process, it pays great attention to the safety function to ensure that the material can be polished well when it is polished, and it is not easy to wear, and it saves consumables and is reasonably planned.

    -No matter how big the rough embryo is, its original size will not be affected by the polishing machine, so no matter the shape or size, there is no change at all in the later stage of polishing.

    These are the detailed advantages of the flat polishing machine.Because the polishing machine requires good quality, powerful function, and safe and easy operation, Of course, you must also pay attention to maintenance during use, always pay attention to whether there is an abnormal situation, and also need to pay attention to maintenance and maintenance in the production process.

    Benefits of Using High-Quality Wire Drawing Lubricants
    The low-quality wiring can lead to several problems, such as wire breaks, poor quality of wire and, in turn, you have to spend more money on the operating costs. Due to this reason, you must use high-quality wire drawing lubricants, which is sold by the reputed companies. There are several benefits of utilizing high-quality wire drawing lubricants.

    1.Invest cost in high-quality wiring

    You should invest your money in buying the high-quality wire drawing lubricants so that the wiring can operate in a better way. You ought to select high quality and bio-stable lubricants of wire drawing from the wire drawing lubricants manufacturers India. The high-quality wiring can maintain the wire’s integrity and would not damage the surface condition. The wires with excellent surface finish would not create any problems in the end and so, you do not have to waste your money and time to replace it.

    2.Right wires needed for wet drawing process

    Every wire drawing lubricant is not suitable for wet drawing process. Due to this reason, you ought to use high-quality liquid kind of wire drawing lubricants for the wet drawing procedure. The wire drawing lubricants should be made with additives so that the drawing process can happen quickly and in turn, it can improve the quality of the surface finish. The lubricants of excellent quality have a better die life and do not lose its functionality that can cause wire breaks.

    3.Distinct lubricants for different purposes

    You should remember that you would require a wide range of wire drawing lubricants for distinct purposes. However, if you use only one lubricant to do every work, it can enhance the operation cost and hamper the quality of the wire. The lubricant manufacturer can offer you lubricants for water-soluble, neat oil and solution synthetic for matching any alloy. The reputed and experienced lubricant manufacturer can provide you with stainless steel, aluminum, nickel-based alloy, copper alloy wire that can meet your requirements.

    4.Know about the lubrication process

    The lubrication procedure is significant and it cannot take place if you would not choose wire drawing lubricant of high quality. There are mainly two kinds of lubrication process that are utilized for wire cold drawing and they are liquid lubricants and soap lubricants. The liquid lubricants can immerse a wire fully in water-miscible, neat oil or in the solution synthetic lubricant. The high-quality lubricants can fulfill your operating needs. The lubricants are mainly used as it lowers friction and heat in any industrial process. However, you must consider the additives required, viscosity, properties and so on while selecting a wire drawing lubricant.

    5.The seamless wire drawing process

    The wire drawing process is vital and it can be done when you would use the high-quality wire drawing lubricants only. The wire drawing procedure lowers the size of the non-ferrous and ferrous rod down of distinct finished sizes, such as a super fine wire. This procedure is completed when the wires or any wire pass via a single or multi-wire drawing machines. The drawing dies utilized in the machines are a natural diamond, synthetic diamond or tungsten carbide. However, the kind of die is determined based on the material that is drawn. The wire drawing machines create wire which is commonly utilized for electrical wiring, telecommunication cable, spokes, and rods and so on.

    6.Rely on a reputed company

    If you do not have much knowledge about wire drawing lubricants, you can talk to the professionals of a company, which manufactures wire drawing lubricants. They can tell you that which lubricants you would need for business purposes so that the wire’s condition can remain better after using it in the wire drawing procedure. Some companies provide custom formulations for meeting certain customer requests so that every problem of the customers can be resolved. Even if the excellent quality of wire drawing lubricant is important, the selection of the right product in the processes and maintenance of the lubricant are also essential. You can opt for the copper wire drawing lubricants as it does not lead to the poor functioning of the wires.


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